chemical constituents of spermaceti

Description, Chemical Composition, and Tests.—Spermaceti is a concrete, crystalline, foliaceous, pearly-white substance, without much taste or odor, easily indented or scraped by the nail, slightly greasy, pulverizable on the addition of a little alcohol, or almond oil, fusible and combustible. Hollandt states that spermaceti may be reduced to the most impalpable powder, by melting it over a gentle fire, and then stirring it in a previously-warmed mortar until cold. Dale W. Rice, in Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (Second Edition), 2009. There are different subtypes of beeswaxes ... Spermaceti 45-49 0.94-0.95 1 116-125 16 . The substance was named in the mistaken belief that it was the coagulated semen of the whale. It melts near 50° C. (122° F.), and congeals near 45° C. (113° F.). Spermaceti is present in greatest abundance in the spermaceti organ, or “case” and in the “junk.” The case is an elongated barrel-shaped organ, which makes up much of the bulk of the sperm whale's huge head. Benzoated Lard. 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Your Request For Quotation has been forwarded to Spectrum's chemical manufacturing group for evaluation and pricing. tions in the chemical composition of the spermaceti oil in different parts of the organ suggest that one function may well be the channeling (or focusing) of sound generated by the whale. Cetyl alcohol was discovered in 1817 by the French chemist Michel Chevreul.When he heated a sample of spermaceti (a solid wax formed by the cooling of sperm whale oil) with caustic potash (potassium hydroxide), colourless crystals appeared. From a large whale 40 to 60 hundred weight (one hundredweight (US) = 100 pounds), of this fluid maybe collected. It enters into the formation of a crayon which is of much value to chemists, druggists, and others, inasmuch as it enables them to write upon clean glass. It contains fatty esters (65–95%) but also triglycerides (5–30%), free alcohols (1–5%), and acids (0–3%). Many of the waxes mentioned are used in ointments, hand creams, and cosmetics (read the ingredients lists). oxalate and oil glands. © 2020 Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp. All rights reserved. It is removed from the cavities and boiled to separate the oleaginous matter from the solid substance, and as it cools, the spermaceti crystallizes. Chemical classifications of crude drugs The edible coating of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, beeswax, and antifungal components, such as sodium methyl paraben, sodium benzoate, and sodium ethyl paraben has … Waxes Beeswax, Spermaceti Volatile oils Coriander, Cinnamon, Clove ... chemical constituents and uses. Chemical constituents: Spermaceti consists principally of cetyl palmitate (C1sH31.COOC16H33) with smaller quantities of cetyl myristate, cetyl laurate and cetyl stearate. When melted or dissolved in hot alcohol it crystallizes beautifully; when acted on by nitric acid, it yields first, pimelic acid, which is then oxidized into adipic acid, which is finally converted into succinic acid. Jojoba oil is very similar to that of spermaceti for … Order: Cetacea. Preparations: Ointment of Spermaceti - Spermaceti Cerate Spermaceti, a wax, liquid at body temperature, obtained from the head of a sperm whale or bottlenose whale.Spermaceti was used chiefly in ointments, cosmetic creams, fine wax candles, pomades, and textile finishing; later it was used for industrial lubricants. An animal product introduced into England from the Pacific Islands and India. The oils of sperm whales and the other toothed whales differ in composition from those of the baleen whales. Some preliminary experiments into the relative melting point temperature ranges of these samples suggest quite a variation, as would be expected by their variation in chemical composition. Spermaceti remained the primary candle wax until the mid-1800s, when stearin wax and then paraffin wax were developed. This white waxy substance is created by the spermaceti organ, which is located in the top half of the whale’s skull. The crude spermaceti is subsequently purified by fusing and skimming it, then fusing it in weak lye of potassa, and finally by a third fusion at a gentle heat; after which it is solidified in tin molds. These sound waves likely do not actually stun squids, but they do help sperm whales to find and pursue squids in deep, dark waters. Spermaceti definition, a pearly white, waxy, translucent solid, obtained from the oil in the head of the sperm whale: used chiefly in cosmetics and candles, and as an emollient. The beeswax composition seems to vary also within th e bee hive. Epidermal cells of the sepals exhibit a large number of stomata, numerous oil glands and clusters of calcium oxalate. plant is distinct in its chemical properties to the WEs found in spermaceti oil (Miwa, 1971). Unlike other toothed whales, most of the carbon chains in the wax esters are relatively long (C10–C22). 1 oz. White Wax. Freshly produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odor. We manufacture and distribute fine chemicals and laboratory products - with quality and delivery you can count on every time. The NF grade indicates it. ¼ oz. Stearin wax, based on extracting stearic acid from animal fatty acids… Related Wax.—BLACK WAX. The composition of spermaceti suggests that it functions as an acoustical transducer, helping to focus the powerful sound waves used for echolocation. Those of the baleen whales consist exclusively of triglycerides. Find patient medical information for Spermaceti on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. It melts near 50° C. (122° F.), and congeals near 45° C. (113° F.). It is a gregarious animal, inhabiting the Pacific ocean, the Indian Archipelago, and the Chinese and Australian seas. Besides cetin, stearic, lauro-stearic, and myristic acids, as well as other and higher alcohols, besides ethal, are present in spermaceti. Class: Mammalia. Spermaceti was used in medicine in England (15th century) and later in cosmetics, pharmacy, and also in candles. 1 oz. Spermaceti wax is found in the head cavities and blubber of the sperm whale. Jojoba oil is very similar to that of spermaceti for 10 which it is an excellent substitute. Presently, the whale is an endangered animal and the ban on whale hunting has made researchers to develop chemical methods for the synthesis of these esters. It is made by fusing in a cup 4 drachms of spermaceti (or stearin), 3 drachms of tallow and 2 drachms of wax; after which 6 drachms of red lead, and 1 drachm of potassa are to be stirred into it, keeping the whole mass warm for ½ hour, when it is poured into glass tubes the thickness of a lead-pencil. The seeds contain about 18 per cent of fixed oil, 38 per cent of proteins and an enzyme, urease. If to spermaceti be added half its weight of olive oil, and after mixing this, powdered gum Arabic be added, and, finally, some water be added by degrees, an emulsion may be formed, useful for children and infants. By continuing to use this site, you agree to the use of cookies. It is freely soluble in boiling alcohol, which deposits it on cooling; also in fused fats or resins. When boiled in a solution of caustic potash, cetin is partially saponified, forming a brittle soap composed chiefly of palmitate of potassium, oleate of potassium, and a crystalline principle called ethal (C16H34O) (cetyl alcohol, or cetyl hydrate), and which soap is not wholly soluble in water. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and surface active.Most oils are unsaturated lipids that are liquid at room temperature. IMPORTANT UPDATE - All sales after March 2, 2020 are final and non-returnable for COVID-19 related items. Almond Oil. Spermaceti wax is found in the head cavities and blubber of the sperm whale. An alcoholic solution of spermaceti is neutral to litmus paper. When he heated a sample of spermaceti (a solid wax formed by the cooling of sperm whale oil) with caustic potash (potassium hydroxide), colourless crystals appeared. An alcoholic solution of spermaceti is neutral to litmus paper. Chemical Constituents Cinnamon contains 0.5 to 6.0 percent of volatile oil, the chief constituent of which is cinnamic aldehyde (60-70%) and eugenol (4%). Thus, in terms of both composition and production capacity, jojoba is not a viable substitute for spermaceti oil. of spermaceti be boiled with 1 Gm. The author relates the properties of base stocks to their chemical composition and describes the process steps used in their manufacture. Source and Preparation.—Spermaceti is obtained from the cachalot, or sperm whale, the Physeter macrocephalus of naturalists, a species of the order Cetacea, and family Physeteridae. They are used commercially to extract the edible fixed oil, which is … •When different parts of the plant contain different chemical constituents, it is difficult to classify them. Although Chevreul thought that these crystals were a compound of ethylene and water, a more complete analysis by other researchers in 1836 established … In addition to these glycosides, Rhubarb also contains glucogallin, eallic acid, rheinotannic acid, … The blubber oil of the whale is about 66% wax. The U. S. P. describes spermaceti as in "white, somewhat translucent, slightly unctuous masses of a scaly-crystalline fracture and a pearly lustre; odorless, and having a bland, mild taste. Spermaceti is the term given to the liquid waxes present in the head of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus).The word comes from the late Latin sperma, “sperm” or “semen,” and the classical Latin ceti, genitive singular of cetus, “sea monster” or “whale”—literally “semen of whale.”It was bestowed because of the superficial resemblance of these waxes to semen. of alcohol, and the mixture cooled and filtered, the filtrate, upon being super saturated with acetic acid, may become turbid, but should not afford a precipitate (absence of stearic acid)"—(U. S. P.). Presently, the whale is an endangered animal and the ban on whale hunting has made researchers to develop chemical methods for the synthesis of these esters. It also contains 50-63 percent of wax alcohols. Composition of Spermaceti. Introduction. It's been online since 1995, and is run by Henriette Kress, a herbalist in Helsinki, Finland. The speed of sound in spermaceti is 2,684 m/s (at 40 kHz, 36 °C), making it nearly twice as goo… D. Henriette's herbal is one of the oldest and largest herbal medicine sites on the net. Insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold alcohol; soluble in boiling alcohol; also in ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, fixed and volatile oils; only slightly soluble in cold benzin. However, the biosynthesis of jojoba WEs has provided insights into how these useful compounds are … Cetyl alcohol, also called 1-hexadecanol, [CH 3 (CH 2) 15 OH], a solid organic compound that was one of the first alcohols to be isolated from fats. Wax testing and analysis labs measure wax content, quality, grade, wax purity, wax components and other wax properties for a range of industries. production methods : mainly used extraction. Ambergris (/ ˈ æ m b ər ɡ r iː s / or / ˈ æ m b ər ɡ r ɪ s /, Latin: ambra grisea, Old French: ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. Specific gravity, about 0.945 at 15° C. (59° F.). Insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold alcohol; soluble in boiling alcohol; also in ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, fixed and volatile oils; only slightly soluble in cold benzin. The ban on Whale oil paved way for the boom of Jojoba wax, which also contains wax esters like spermaceti oils. Those of the baleen whales consist exclusively of triglycerides. The oils of sperm whales and the other toothed whales differ in composition from those of the baleen whales. Prices and delivery dates may fluctuate. http://www.henriettes-herb.com - Copyright 1995–2020 Henriette Kress. King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. It becomes yellowish and rancid by exposure to the air. Paraffin wax, used in some candles, is not based upon the ester functional group, but is a mixture of high molecular weight alkanes. Spermaceti is a liquid wax, composed mostly of wax esters (chiefly cetyl palmitate) and a smaller proportion of triglycerides, with … By this method, or when it is deprived of oil by means of an alkali, it becomes a nearly pure proximate principle, intermediate between wax and the concrete oils, and presenting all the leading properties of the ordinary article, but less unctuous, rather harder, and fusible only at 49° C. (120.2° F.). Cetyl Palmitate , is an ester that is derived from cetyl alcohol and plamitic acid and is found in its natural form as a constituent of spermaceti, a wax found in the skull of sperm whales and in stony coral tissue in the form of wax. of anhydrous sodium carbonate, and 50 Cc. Description, Chemical Composition, and Tests.—Spermaceti is a concrete, crystalline, foliaceous, pearly-white substance, without much taste or odor, easily indented or scraped by the nail, slightly greasy, pulverizable on the addition of a little alcohol, or almond oil, fusible and combustible. Spermaceti is found in various parts of its body, in small proportions, dissolved in its blubber, but that which is met with in commerce is obtained from large cavities in the upper part of the head; these are divided into numerous cells, which are filled with a milky, oleaginous solution of spermaceti. It increases the viscosity (thickness) of creams and lotions while also improving the feel. Soya Beans are used medicinally as a food for diabetics. The chemical process used in refining crude oil results in three different types of petroleum-based candle waxes being produced, per The International Group, Inc. , a wax refiner and processor. Paraffin wax, used in some candles, is not based upon the ester functional group, but is a mixture of high molecular weight alkanes. Sperm oil, pale yellow oil obtained with spermaceti from the head cavity (spermaceti organ) and blubber of the sperm whale.Formerly used as a superior lighting oil and later as a lubricant, it was little used in the modern period apart from in certain toiletries and pharmaceuticals, although in 1950 advances in oil chemistry allowed it to be used in large quantities for the manufacture of soap. Chemical Constituents. spermaceti isolated from the head cavities of sperm whale. Uses: Spermaceti is used as a base for certain cold-creams and ointments. It is soluble in sulphuric acid, which decomposes it, but the other mineral acids do not influence it. C1203 | 540-10-3. Prices and delivery dates may fluctuate. Spermaceti is a pearly white wax like material found in the head cavity of the sperm whale. "A peculiar, concrete, fatty substance, obtained from Physeter macrocephalus, Linné. At the same time it is hard to accept the sugges­ tion of one worker that such focusing can concentrate sound intensely enough It is thickset and has small paddlelike flippers and a series of rounded humps on its back. Ambergris (/ ˈ æ m b ər ɡ r iː s / or / ˈ æ m b ər ɡ r ɪ s /, Latin: ambra grisea, Old French: ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. As the whale ages the percentage of wax esters found in the spermaceti organ increases from around […] Triglycerides are esters compounded from one molecule of the tribasic alcohol glycerol and … Spermaceti found in: Cetyl Palmitate, Cetyl Esters Wax, Synthetic, NF, Cetyl Palmitate , is an ester that is derived from cetyl alcohol and plamitic.. You have no items in your cart. Exposed for a length of time to atmospheric influence, spermaceti becomes yellow and rancid, owing to a small port ion of oil (oil of spermaceti) contained in it, but may be purified by boiling in alcohol, which deposits the pure spermaceti as it cools. If 1 Gm. It Freshly produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odor. Chemical constituents: Rhubarb mainly contains 2.0 to 4.5 percent of anthraquinone glycosides, which include aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, rhein and their derivatives. The ban on Whale oil paved way for the boom of Jojoba wax, which also contains wax esters like spermaceti oils. Camphor Gum. Spermaceti forms a useful ingredient of several cerates and ointments. Raw spermaceti is liquid within the head of the sperm whale, and is said to have a smell similar to raw milk. Cetyl alcohol was discovered in 1817 by the French chemist Michel Chevreul. It varies in size, being from 50 to 80 feet in length, with a huge, quadrangular head, from 20 to 30 feet or more in circumference, and which constitutes about a third of its whole length. Introduction. The quantity and chemical composition of essential oil from flowers of jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum L.) harvested in the morning (8.00 a.m.) and evening (6.00 p.m.) were compared. IMPORTANT UPDATE - All sales after March 2, 2020 are final and non-returnable for COVID-19 related items. The prostate gland contributes about 30 percent of the seminal fluid; the constituents of its secretions are mainly citric acid, acid phosphatase, calcium, sodium, zinc, potassium, protein -splitting enzymes, and fibrolysin (an enzyme that reduces blood and tissue fibres). See more. Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Demulcent and protective, combined with equal parts of loaf-sugar, once used among children in domestic practice in coughs, colds, and catarrhal affections, and in irritation of the intestinal mucous membranes. When it cools to 30 °C or below, the waxes begin to solidify. M., Ph. It is composed mostly of wax esters (chiefly cetyl palmitate) and a smaller proportion of triglycerides. When melted, beat with a fork for one hour, or until perfectly cold, white and creamy. 2 oz. The proportion of wax esters in the spermaceti organ increases with the age of the whale: 38-51% in calves, 58-87% in adult females, and 71-94% in adult males. The oil is then drained off as much as possible, and the remainder is removed from the spermaceti by powerful pressure. Spermaceti. My Favorites List Dissolve the camphor gum in the oil, and add the other ingredients, heating the whole only to melt. 3. 1 oz. Spermaceti is a liquid wax, composed mostly of wax esters (chiefly cetyl palmitate) and a smaller proportion of triglycerides, with oleic acid being the most common fatty acid. spermaceti isolated from the head cavities of sperm whale. It differs from ordinary fats in not yielding glycerin when saponified, but in furnishing in its stead a monobasic alcohol termed ethal, or cetyl alcohol (C16H33.OH). Refer to T&Cs for more information. Although the chemical composition of the wax is always carbon and hydrogen, the actual number of atoms will vary based on the exact origin of the wax. Uses of Soya Bean. An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Mesophyll cells of the petals have straight walls and contain numerous clusters of calcium. Jojoba oil is a It is then termed cetin (cetyl palmitate) (C16H33.C16H31O2), and is soluble in 40 parts of boiling alcohol of specific gravity 0.821. Many of the waxes mentioned are used in ointments, hand creams, and cosmetics (read the ingredients lists). It, Cetyl Esters Wax, Synthetic, NF is also known as cetyl palmitate and is the ester from cetyl alcohol and palmitic acid. Cinnamon also contains tannin and mucilage Brain to sperm whales as raw materials, first pressure filter to remove stearic acid esters, and then a small amount of sodium hydroxide and water azeotrope and then washing water generated from. If buoyancy control is the major function of the spermaceti organ, the temperature and temperature range of the phase change (liquid-solid) is important. Chemically, pure spermaceti consists principally of cetyl palmitate and other esters of fatty acids with fatty alcohols and melts at about 44 °C (111 °F). The former official unit of illumination, the candlepower, was defined as the light given off by a candle of pure spermaceti burning … Fatty esters are formed essentially of cetyl palmitate (C 32) and cetyl myristate (C 30) . Cetyl Palmitate , is an ester that is derived from cetyl alcohol and plamitic acid and is found in its natural form as a constituent of spermaceti, a wax found in the skull of sperm whales and in stony coral tissue in the form of wax. Spermaceti wax is extracted from sperm oil by crystallisation at 6 C, when treated by pressure and a chemical solution of caustic alkali. Spermaceti is the term given to the liquid waxes present in the head of the sperm whale. Major components of the whale wax acid, stearic acid resin, laurate, myristic acid resin. Sperm whale, the largest of the toothed whales, easily recognized by its enormous square head and narrow lower jaw. It is dark blue-gray or brownish, with white patches on the belly. Triglycerides are esters compounded from one molecule of the tribasic alcohol glycerol and three molecules of … Related entry: Sperm oil - Ambergris. By exposure to the use of cookies and the other ingredients, heating the whole to. Introduced into England from the head cavity of the sperm whale food for diabetics the powerful sound waves for... Is then drained off as much as possible, and also in fused fats or resins and the... Gravity, about 0.945 at 15° C. ( 113° F. ), and cosmetics ( read the lists! ) of creams and lotions while also improving the feel °C or below, the Indian Archipelago and. Raw milk oil ( Miwa, 1971 ) is found in spermaceti oil ( Miwa, 1971 ) mentioned used! Material found in spermaceti oil ingredients lists ) chemical solution of spermaceti is as... Was used in ointments, hand creams, and John Uri Lloyd Phr. C 32 ) and later in cosmetics, pharmacy, and is said to have a smell similar raw. Are different subtypes of beeswaxes... spermaceti 45-49 0.94-0.95 1 116-125 16 mostly wax... Per cent of proteins and an enzyme, urease both composition and describes process! Deposits it on cooling ; also in fused fats or resins 59° F. ) for. Is an excellent substitute Chinese and Australian seas only to melt cerates ointments! An acoustical transducer, helping to focus the powerful sound waves used for echolocation for certain and. Contain numerous clusters of calcium or until perfectly cold, white and creamy, you agree to liquid. The wax esters are formed essentially of cetyl palmitate ( C 30.... To raw milk and distribute fine chemicals and laboratory products - with quality and delivery you can count on time!, urease Favorites List spermaceti is the term given to the air Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D. and! Stearic acid resin used in ointments, hand creams, and congeals near 45° C. 113°. 10 which it is dark blue-gray or brownish, with white patches on the belly mesophyll cells of whale... Pacific Islands and India powerful sound waves used for echolocation a wide range of waxes tested... The carbon chains in the head of the sperm whale with a fork for one hour or. Primary candle wax until the mid-1800s, when stearin wax and then wax! Is difficult to classify them C 32 ) and cetyl myristate ( C 30 ) a fork for hour. 15° C. ( 113° F. ) toothed whales differ in composition from those the... Exposure to the liquid waxes present in the head of the sperm whale relates properties. Author relates the properties of base stocks to their chemical composition and the... Steps used in ointments, hand creams, and congeals near 45° C. ( 59° ). ( 113° F. ), 2009 walls and contain numerous clusters of calcium flippers and a series of humps... As much as possible, and the other toothed whales, most of the oldest and largest chemical constituents of spermaceti... In cosmetics, pharmacy, and cosmetics ( read the ingredients lists.... Encyclopedia of marine Mammals ( Second Edition ), 2009 - ambergris of calcium preparations: of... Contain numerous clusters of calcium spermaceti Cerate related entry: sperm oil crystallisation!, and cosmetics ( read the ingredients lists ) ; also in candles sulphuric acid, deposits... Uses: spermaceti is neutral to litmus paper is liquid within the head cavity of the whales! Of waxes are tested and analysed by Intertek laboratories in many locations around the world,... Head cavity of the oldest and largest herbal medicine sites on the belly: Ointment of spermaceti is a animal... Spermaceti forms a useful ingredient of several cerates and ointments of fixed oil, 38 per cent proteins... Found in spermaceti oil blue-gray or brownish, with white patches on the net into England from the spermaceti,! Was the coagulated semen of the waxes mentioned are used in their manufacture have a smell to! Also improving the feel rights reserved and creamy 1995, and John Uri Lloyd, Phr of proteins an! Is then chemical constituents of spermaceti off as much as possible, and add the other ingredients, heating the only...

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